Hemp Prohibition is the Epitome of Fascism in America

The following is an excerpt from my upcoming book entitled “The Great American Renaissance

“The issue of hemp legalization in the United States is the epitome of fascism. Remember fascism is the merger of government and corporations to monopolize the markets and control the citizens.  The same international money cartel and self appointed aristocratic families that have controled the American money supply, indebted our nation, brought war to our shores, and assassinated our presidents is responsible for the prohibition of industrial hemp.  They fear that let loose, hemp would create an entire new industry out of their control, one that would reduce their market share for the production of textiles, pharmaceuticals, energy, plastics, and eventually, most importantly, control of the money supply through the Federal Reserve.  
Legalized hemp would allow farmers to cultivate a plant that they could then distill into a fuel which would ease the financial burden of farming and provide financial freedom and indepedence to millions of Americans across the country as anyone that owns an acre of land could produce their own energy.  The very fact that industrial hemp is illegal in the United States, and around the world for that matter, represents the essence of control by the 1% of the remaining 99%.  By legalizing hemp, will we be well on our way to resolving the energy crisis, the health crisis, the personal and governmental debt crisis, as well as the man made portion of the climate issues.”

La legalización del cáñamo en México ayudará a resolver los problemas de la emigración y la pobreza rural



Después de ver a Roy Germano “El otro lado de la inmigración” y de haber vivido en Michoacán, México, durante 2 años, que reconocen los beneficios que la legalización de la marihuana y el cáñamo, llevaría a los EE.UU. y México. (Ver http://youtu.be/F8t78ClZFpY una revisión documental de Germano.)

En la actualidad Estados Unidos sufre de una montaña de deudas generadas en parte por malas políticas agrícolas y de impuestos, una fallida guerra contra las drogas, la política de inmigración no, y un desempleo significativo, y la destrucción de la industria de la agricultura en pequeña facilitado por el TLCAN y la agricultura corporativa. Ya es hora de una nueva dirección.

Mientras tanto, México ha sufrido una disminución significativa en la producción de petróleo y por lo tanto redujo los ingresos por exportación de petróleo. Como ciudadanos mexicanos son incapaces de encontrar empleo en los EE.UU., las remesas se reducirá drásticamente y muchos de ellos regresan a casa a un menor costo de vida. Desafortunadamente, también volver a menos oportunidades económicas en el campo, con la excepción del comercio de drogas ilegales.

20 años de TLCAN ha beneficiado principalmente a los agricultores de EE.UU. corporativo con la ayuda de subsidios federales y conducido a los agricultores mexicanos fuera del negocio a través de dumping por parte de los agricultores empresariales.

México debe aprobar una legislación similar a la HR1831, la agricultura del cáñamo industrial Ley de 2011, presentado por EE.UU. El congresista Ron Paul, que permitirá a sus agricultores para hacer crecer un cultivo comercial como ningún otro.

México, como todas las demás naciones, debe tener acceso a todos los recursos disponibles de energía limpia disponibles en la tierra verde de Dios y esto debe incluir el cáñamo. Legalizar y gravar el cáñamo en toda la República Mexicana, se generan nuevas industrias que podrían ser una parte vital de la solución a muchos de sus problemas económicos, que a su vez ayudaría a resolver el problema de la emigración.

El cáñamo es la cosecha de alto rendimiento, que producen más biomasa por hectárea que la mayoría de otros cultivos y pueden ser utilizados para los biocombustibles, la biomasa, textiles, papel, plásticos, etc. A diferencia del petróleo, carbón, gas natural o combustibles nucleares, el cáñamo es un recurso biodegradable y renovable, que nos podría abastecerse de materias primas durante miles de años, sin cambiar nuestro clima y sin producir residuos que sigue siendo radiactivo durante millones de años.

Gravar todas las etapas de la producción y distribución de este nuevo cultivo y fuente de energía generaría ingresos para los gobiernos municipales y estatales la lucha contra los déficits de ingresos. Licencias de confinar a los ciudadanos y las pequeñas empresas charter que promover negocios sostenibles para los productores rurales de todo el país y empresarios creativos de energía limpia podría contribuir al PIB con las exportaciones de sus nuevos recursos de energía natural y limpia y productos.

Los estadounidenses preocupados por la energía, la contaminación, la guerra, la inmigración ilegal, y la prosperidad económica, debe ser compatible con HR1831 que se encuentra actualmente en manos de la Comisión de Energía y Comercio.

Los mexicanos preocupados por puestos de trabajo suficientes para los agricultores deben presionar a sus propios gobiernos para un proyecto de ley similar y generar una nueva industria en pleno auge y que podría impulsar a México y sus ciudadanos en la prosperidad.

# # Hempforvictory hemp4Mexico

HEMP BIOMASS FOR ENERGY

HEMP BIOMASS FOR ENERGY
RV3
Tim Castleman
© Fuel and Fiber Company, 2001, 2006


Table of Contents

Table of Contents_____________________________________________________________ 2
Introduction_________________________________________________________________ 3
Ways biomass can be used for energy production____________________________________ 3
Burning:_________________________________________________________________________________ 3
Oils:____________________________________________________________________________________ 3
Conversion of cellulose to alcohol:____________________________________________________________ 4
About Hemp_________________________________________________________________ 5
Hemp seed oil for Bio Diesel____________________________________________________ 5
Production of oil__________________________________________________________________________ 5
Production of Bio-Diesel____________________________________________________________________ 5
Hemp Cellulose for Ethanol_____________________________________________________ 6
Forest Thinning and Slash, Mill Wastes________________________________________________________ 6
Agricultural Waste_________________________________________________________________________ 7
MSW (Municipal Solid Waste)______________________________________________________________ 7
Dedicated Energy Crops_____________________________________________________________________ 8
Barriers__________________________________________________________________________________ 8
Benefits_________________________________________________________________________________ 8
The Fuel and Fiber Company Method_____________________________________________ 9
Hemp Biomass Production Model Using the Fuel and Fiber Company Method_______________________ 10
Economic Impact____________________________________________________________ 11
Employment_____________________________________________________________________________ 11
Construction_____________________________________________________________________________ 11
Related agricultural activities________________________________________________________________ 11
Environmental Impact________________________________________________________ 11
Endnotes & References_______________________________________________________ 12


Hemp as Biomass for Energy

Introduction

Hemp advocates claim industrial hemp would be a good source of biomass to help address our energy needs. Since the oil crisis in the early seventies much work has been accomplished in the area of energy production using biomass. Biomass is any plant or tree matter in large quantity. These decades of research have lead to the discovery of several ways to convert biomass into energy and other useful products.
Questions of biomass suitability as compared to other “green” sources of energy are the subject of numerous studies and are not addressed here. Other questions concerning detailed economic and environmental impact, use of GMO’s, and agronomy are also outside the scope of this analysis.
This paper does attempt to explore the options available, and outlines some of the barriers and opportunities regarding them.

Ways biomass can be used for energy production

Burning:

·      Co-fired with coal to reduce emissions and offset a fraction of coal use
·      Burned to produce electricity
·      Pelletized to heat structures
·      Made or cut into logs for heating
Biomass to be burned is typically valued at $30-50 per ton, which makes whole stalk hemp as biomass to be burned impractical due to the high value of its bast fiber. One exception may be found in consideration of the latest gasification technologies used on local small scale and in remote rural applications.
·      Gasification (Pyrrolysis)
Gasification uses high heat to convert biomass into “SynGas” (synthetic gas) and low grade fuel oil which has an energy content of about 40% that of petroleum diesel. By products are mostly “Char” and ash. This technology is readily available commercially in several forms and could be a viable option according to local environmental and economic conditions. Beginning in 1999, Community Power Corporation[i] joined with the US National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) and Shell Renewables, Ltd. to design and develop a new generation of small modular biopower systems. The first prototype SMB system rated at 15 kWe was deployed in the village of Alaminos in the Philippines in early 2001. The fully automated system can use a variety of biomass fuels to generate electricity, shaft power and heat.

Oils:

·      Vegetable, seed and plant oil used “as-is” in diesel engines
·      Biodiesel – vegetable oil converted by chemical reaction
·      Converted into high-quality non-toxic lubricants
There are a number of plants high in oils, and many processes that produce vegetable oil as a waste product. These include soy, corn, coconut, palm, canola, rapeseed, and a number of other promising species. Any of these oils can be converted to biodiesel as described later, with a feedstock cost of $0 + per gallon.

Conversion of cellulose to alcohol:

·      Hydrolysis (Enzymatic & Acid)
Conversion of cellulose to fermentable glucose holds the greatest promise from both a production and feedstock supply standpoint. DOE (NREL) and a number of Universities and private enterprise have been developing this technology and achieved a number of milestones. Production estimates of 80 to 130 gallons per ton of biomass make this technology very attractive.
·      Anaerobic digester (Methane)
Anaerobic digestion is used to capture methane from any waste material. It is confirmed technology under commercialization utilizing landfill gases, wastewater treatment system gases, agricultural wastes from several other sources, particularly hog and cattle manure. It is well suited for distributed power generation when co-located with electrical generation equipment. For example, Corporation for Future Resources[ii] and Minusa Coffee Company, Ltd., located near Itaipé, Minas Gerais, Brazil, have teamed to construct an anaerobic fermentation digestion facility at Minusa’s coffee operation. The 600 cubic meter digester is designed to continuously produce methane rich gas, to be used for coffee drying and electric power production, as well as nitrogen-rich anaerobic organic fertilizer.

CFR/Minusa Anaerobic digester in Brazil.
The digester is constructed from native granite blocks quarried at the Minusa site.

 

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 4.0

This technology may be attractive in some cases when co-located with a hemp fiber processing facility or in remote locations to provide local power generation.


About Hemp

Industrial hemp can be grown in most climates and on marginal soils. It requires little or no herbicide and no pesticide, and uses less water than cotton. Measurements at Ridgetown College indicate the crop needs 300-400 mm (10-13 in.) of rainfall equivalent. Yields will vary according to local conditions and will range from 1.5 to 6 dry tons of biomass per acre[iii]. California’s rich croplands and growing environment are expected to increase yields by 20% over Canadian results, which will average at least 3.9 bone dry tons per acre.

Hemp seed oil for Bio Diesel

Production of oil

Grown for oilseed, Canadian grower’s yields average 1 tonne/hectare, or about 400 lbs. per acre. Cannabis seed contains about 28% oil (112 lbs.), or about 15 gallons per acre. Production costs using these figures would be about $35 per gallon. Some varieties are reported[iv] to yield as much as 38% oil, and a record 2,000 lbs. per acre was recorded in 1999. At this rate, 760 lbs.of oil per acre would result in about 100 gallons of oil, with production costs totaling about $5.20 gallon. This oil could be used as-is in modified diesel engines, or be converted to biodiesel using a relatively simple, automated process. Several systems are under development worldwide designed to produce biodiesel on a small scale, such as on farms using “homegrown” oil crops.

Production of Bio-Diesel

Basically methyl esters, or biodiesel, as it is commonly called, can be made from any oil or fat, including hemp seed oil. The reaction requires only oil, an alcohol (usually methanol) and a catalyst (usually sodium hydroxide [NaOH, or drain cleaner]). The reaction produces only biodiesel and a smaller amount of glycerol or glycerin.

The costs of materials needed for the reaction are the costs associated with production of hemp seed oil, the cost of methanol and the NaOH. In the instances where waste vegetable oil, or WVO, is used, the cost for oil is of course, free. Typically methanol costs about $2 per gallon and NaOH costs about $5 per 500g or about $0.01 per gram. For a typical 17 gallon batch of biodiesel, you’d start with 14 gallons of hemp seed oil; add to that 15% by volume of alcohol (or 2.1 gallons) and about 500g of NaOH. The process takes about 2 hours to complete and requires about 2000 watts of energy. That works out to about 2kw/hr or about $0.10 of energy (assuming $0.05 per kw/hr). So the total cost per gallon of biodiesel is $? (oil) + 2.1 x $2 (methanol) + $5 (NaOH) + $0.10 (energy) / 14 gallons = $0.66 per gallon, plus the cost of the oil.[v] Other costs may include sales, transportation, maintenance, depreciation, insurance and labor.


Hemp Cellulose for Ethanol

Another approach will involve conversion of cellulose to ethanol, which can be done in several ways including gasification, acid hydrolysis and a technology utilizing engineered enzymes to convert cellulose to glucose, which is then fermented to make alcohol. Still another approach using enzymes will convert cellulose directly to alcohol, which leads to substantial process cost savings.
Current costs associated with these conversion processes are about $1.37[vi] per gallon of fuel produced, plus the cost of the feedstock. Of this $1.37, enzyme costs are about $0.50 per gallon; current research efforts are directed toward reduction of this amount to $0.05 per gallon. There is a Federal tax credit of $0.54 per gallon and a number of other various incentives available. Conversion rates range from a low of 25-30 gallons per ton of biomass to 100 gallons per ton using the latest technology.
In 1998 the total California gasoline demand was 14 billion gallons. When ethanol is used to replace MTBE as an oxygenate, this will create California demand in excess of 700 million gallons per year. MTBE is to be phased out of use by 2003 according to State law.
In this case we can consider biomass production from a much broader perspective. Sources of feedstock under consideration for these processes are:

We will address these in turn and show why a dedicated energy crop holds important potential for ethanol production in California, why hemp is a good candidate as a dedicated energy crop, and how it may represent the fastest track to meeting 34% of California’s upcoming ethanol market demand of at least 580-750 million gallons per year.[vii]

Forest Thinning and Slash, Mill Wastes

A 1999 California Energy Commission biomass resource assessment estimated 13.8 million bone dry tons (5.5 Mill, 4.5 Slash & 3.8 thinnings) are available in California.
If practiced within State & Federal regulations, use of this source can have significant beneficial effects. Removal of excess biomass from forests reduces the frequency & intensity of fires, helping control the spread of diseases, and contributes to overall forest health. At 59 – 66 gallons per ton, this could supply as much as 900 million gallons per year.
One proposed California project, Collins Pine’s Chester Mill, which will contribute 20 MGY and be co-located with an existing biomass-powered 12 MW electric generator; yet, there is significant resistance to such uses by several prominent environmental groups, and for good reason – this could eventually lead to widespread destruction of forest habitat by overzealous energy companies willing to disregard the environment in the name of national energy security. Barriers also include harvest cost and capabilities as some slash & thinnings are extremely difficult to access, and the high lignin content of these materials.
If 25% of the available material were used, about 200 million gallons per year could be produced.

Agricultural Waste

In California over 500,000 acres of rice are grown each year. Each acre produces 1-2.5 tons of rice straw which have been until now burned. Alternative methods of disposal are needed, and conversion to ethanol has been under development for several years. There are currently two projects underway proposing to use rice straw: one in California (Gridley) and one in Jennings, LA. If the Gridley project is fully implemented, it will add 25 million gallons of production to California’s already-thin 9 million gallons per year. Barriers include collection costs and the high silica content (13%) of rice straw.
Other agricultural wastes include orchard trimmings, walnut and almond shells, and food processing wastes, for a total of about 700 MGY potential if ALL agricultural wastes were used. This is, of course, impractical, as some must be returned to the soil somehow, plus collection and transport costs will have an effect on viability of a particular waste product. Agricultural waste has the potential to satisfy a significant share of demand, with many factors to be considered when proposing a bio-refinery based on any feedstock, which are determined by full life-cycle analysis.
If 25% of the available material were used, about 175 million gallons per year could be produced.

MSW (Municipal Solid Waste)

Though about 60% of the waste stream is cellulosic material such as yard trimmings, urban waste and paper, this source is not considered a viable option for a number of reasons; these include existing industries that recycle materials and the landfill’s use of green waste as “Alternative Daily Cover” (ADC). Co-location of ethanol production is possible, but only up to about 10 MGY of production. When capital investment is considered, it is generally considered most economical to build larger capacity facilities.
The future of MSW being used for ethanol conversion does not look good. At best, 100 MGY of capacity may eventually come online, but it will be an uphill struggle to compete with higher value uses already in place.



Dedicated Energy Crops

There are 28 million acres of agricultural land in California, of which 10 million acres are established cropland. If 10% of this cropland (1 million acres) were dedicated to production of hemp as an energy and fiber crop, we could produce 150-500 million gallons of ethanol per year.
Greater estimates would result from expanding the analysis to include use of agricultural lands not currently applied to crop production as well as additional land not currently devoted to agriculture. A California Department of Food and Agriculture estimate suggests that each 1 million acres of crop production, occupying roughly 1% of the state’s total land area, would supply the ethanol equivalent of about 3% of California’s current gasoline demand.[viii]

Barriers

A barrier to the development of a cellulose-to-ethanol industry is availability, consistency and make-up, and location of feedstock. Dedicated crops, such as switchgrass[ix], resolve these problems. Cannabis hemp will enhance business opportunities because we can “tailor” the cannabis plant fractions to satisfy multiple end uses such as high value composites, fine paper, nitrogen rich fertilizer, CO2 , medicines, plastics, fabrics and polymers – just a portion of the many possible end uses.

Benefits

Benefits of a dedicated energy crop include consistency of feedstock supply, enhanced co-product opportunities, and increased carbon sequestration. It is commonly held that agricultural industries must focus on multiple value-added products from the various fractions of plants. This value-adding enhances rural development by providing jobs and facilities for value-adding operations. Hemp[x] lends itself to this in a unique way due to the high value of its bast fiber. Market prices for well-cleaned, composite-grade natural fiber are about 55¢ per pound ($1,100 ton); lower value uses, such as in some paper-making, bring $400-$700 per ton, while other value-adding options, such as pulping for fine papers[xi], could increase the value of the fiber to $2,500 per ton.

The Fuel and Fiber Company Method

The Fuel and Fiber Company Method[xii] employs a mechanical separation step to extract the high-value bast fiber[xiii] as a first step in processing. The remaining core material is to undergo conversion to alcohol and other co-products. There is no waste stream and the system will provide a net carbon reduction due to increased biomass production. Conversion efficiency of hemp core is relative to the lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose content and method used. The following table lists some materials often cited as potential sources of biomass and their chemical make-up. A challenge is conversion of hemicellulose to glucose; yet this challenge has been met recently by Genencor, Arkenol, Iogen, and others. These technologies provide conversion of hemicellulose and cellulose fractions to glucose using cellulase enzymes or acid.
Hemp
Cellulose
Hemicellulose
Lignin
Bast
64.8 %
7.7%
4.3 %
Core
34.5 %
17.8%
20.8 %
Soft Pine
44%
26%
27.8%
Spruce
42%
27%
28.6%
Wheat Straw
34%
27.6%
18%
Rice Straw
32.1%
24.0%
12.5%
Corn Stover
28%
28%
11%
Switchgrass
32.5%
26.4%
17.8%
Chemical composition of Industrial Hemp as compared to other plant matter
Lignin has long been viewed as a problem in the processing of fiber, and detailed studies have revealed numerous methods of removal and degradation; commonly it is burned for process heat and power generation. Advances in gasification and turbine technologies enable on-site power and heat generation, and should be seriously considered in any full-scale proposal. Additionally, by full chemical assay and careful market evaluation numerous co-product and value-adding opportunities exist. Such assay should include a NIRS (Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy) analysis, with as many varieties and conditions of material as can be gathered.
Reductions in lignin achieved by cultivation and harvest techniques, germplasm development and custom enzyme development will optimize processing output and efficiency. Incremental advances in system efficiencies related to these production improvements create a significant financial incentive for investors.
The Fuel and Fiber Company Renewable Resource System will process 300,000 to 600,000 tons of biomass per year, per facility; 25% to 35% of this will be high-value grades of core-free bast fiber. The remaining 65% to 75% of biomass will be used for the conversion process. Each facility will process input from 60,000 to 170,000 acres. Outputs are: Ethanol: 10-25 MGY (Million Gallons per Year), Fiber: 67,000 to 167,000 tons per year, and other co-products; fertilizer, animal feed, etc. to be determined. Hemp production will average 3.9 tons per acre with average costs of $520 per acre.

 

Hemp Biomass Production Model Using the Fuel and Fiber Company Method[xiv]

Min
Max
Average
Improve 20%
Totals
Sell 1
Sell 2
Total 1
Total 2
Tons per Acre
1.5
5
3.25
0.65
3.9
Lbs. Bast
(Separated 90-94%)
750
2500
1625
325
1950
0.35
0.55
$682.50
$1,072.50
Lbs. Hurd
2250
7500
4875
975
5850
Gallons Per Ton
20
80
50
$2.00
$3.00
Gallons Per Acre
146
292.5
438.8
Ethanol costs
Per Gallon
0.92
1.37
1.145
167.46
167.46
Ethanol profit
$125.04
$271.29
Gross
$807.54
$1,343.79
Production Costs
Per Acre
424
617
520.5
$520.50
$520.50
Separation costs
Per Ton
41.54
75.68
58.61
$228.58
$228.58
Costs
$749.08
$749.08
Profit
$58.46
$594.71
Administrative & License %
2
$16.15
$26.88
NET
$42.31
$567.84
Capacity
Acres
Tons Fiber
10 MGY Facility
68,376
66,667
Annual
$2,893,256
$38,826,590
25 MGY Facility
170,940
166,667
Profits
$7,233,141
$97,066,474
Total Admin & License
$1,104,333
$4,594,167
Capital costs not included. Estimated capital costs are $135 to $150 million per facility, plus crop payments. To add a pulping operation will require an additional $100 million and adds $117 per ton of fiber processed for pulp, which has a market value of up to $2,500 per ton. The most conservative estimates possible were used for this study. A full-scale feasibility study is needed to validate assumptions and projections. An additional $35 per ton environmental impact benefit should also be factored into future projections[xv].


Economic Impact

Employment

Employment for hemp production, calculated at one worker per 40 acres farmed[xvi], results in a total of 1,700 to 4,275 new jobs, if 10% of California’s cropland is put into production of cannabis hemp. These jobs are created across all traditional agricultural employment sectors, upon full development of the system.
The processing plants will also create new jobs in these areas[xvii]:
·      Administrative & Sales – 15 to 25 per facility
·      Research & Development – 25 to 50 statewide
·      Engineering & Technical – 75 to 100 statewide
·      Construction & Maintenance – 150 to 300 statewide
·      Transportation & Material Handling – 10 to 20 per facility
·      General Labor – 25 to 50 per facility

Construction

Each facility will incur $100-300 million in construction costs. Much of the equipment and labor will be procured locally, creating new jobs and opportunities for entrepreneurs to provide equipment and services to this new industry.

Related agricultural activities

At an average cost of $520 per acre, returns to farmers will range from $50-$500 profit per acre. Used in rotation with other crops, hemp can help reduce herbicide use resulting in savings to the farmer on production of crops other than hemp.

Environmental Impact

There are a great number of environmental impacts to be considered, including;
·      Water use. Agricultural operations & processing will consume hundreds of millions of gallons.
·      Large mono-crop systems have been problematic. Though hemp lends itself well to mono-cropping, effective & feasible rotation schemes must be devised.
·      Genetically Modified Organisms – Are key to efficient conversions but may pose a great threat to life. This is an issue that must be handled with complete transparency & integrity.
·      Waste streams generated – Though expected to be low, a detailed accounting must be made and addressed.
·      Creation of “Carbon Sink” to absorb carbon
·      Improved land and water management
·      In-State fuel production – reducing transport costs and associated effects
·      Reduction in emissions (Continued use of RFG)
·      $35 per acre total environmental benefit



[i] Community Power Corporation, 8420 S. Continental Divide Road, Littleton, CO 80127
[ii] Corporation For Future Resources, !909 Chowkeebin Court, Tallahassee, Florida 32301
[iii] Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs FactSheet “Growing Industrial Hemp in Ontario” 08/00
[iv] A Brief Analysis of the Characteristics of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Grown in Northern Ontario in 1998. May 19, 1999 Herb A. Hinz, Undergraduate Thesis, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario
[v] IAN S. WATSON, AIA BioDiesel Expert
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
[vi] CIFAR Conference XIV, “Cracking the Nut: Bioprocessing Lignocellulose to Renewable Products and Energy”, June 4, 2001
[vii] California Energy Commission report “COSTS AND BENEFITS OF A BIOMASS-TO-ETHANOL PRODUCTION INDUSTRY IN CALIFORNIA”, March, 2001
[viii] California Energy Commission report “EVALUATION OF BIOMASS-TO-ETHANOL FUEL POTENTIAL IN CALIFORNIA”, December, 1999 pg iv 4-5
[ix] Switchgrass is the leading candidate under consideration by DOE. Numerous studies are available upon request.
[x] Cannabis Sativa, commonly know as “hemp” is included in a list of potential field crops considered as Candidate Energy Crops in the December 1999 California Energy Commission report “EVALUATION OF BIOMASS-TO-ETHANOL FUEL POTENTIAL IN CALIFORNIA” pg. iv-3
[xi] Hemp Pulp and Paper Production Gertjan van Roekel jr.
ATO-DLO Agrotechnology, P.O.box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Van Roekel, G J, 1994. Hemp pulp and paper production. Journal of the International Hemp Association 1: 12-14.
[xii] Fuel and Fiber Company was formed to promote a renewable resource system using fibrous crops such as hemp and kenaf to produce high-value natural fiber, ethanol and other co-products. www.FuelandFiber.com
[xiii] All of the hemp fibre produced and sold by Hempline (www.hempline.com) is made from hemp grown without pesticides and processed without chemicals. The fibre is a uniform natural golden colour typical of field retted stalks. The fibre has a moisture regain of 12% and excellent fibre tenacity. The fibre is pressed into high compression bales to minimize transportation costs.
The fibre is available in 40ft. and 20 ft. containers, truckloads or by the bale and shipped internationally. Samples of the fibre are available for trials upon request. The pricing varies based on the fibre grade, and is comparable or more cost effective than many natural and synthetic fibres.
Hempline primary hemp fibre comes in the following grades:
Ultra clean Grade Fibre
·       99.9% clean of core fibre Value: .55 + lb.
·       Dust extracted
·       Available in staples lengths between 1/2″ to 6″ and sliver.
·       Well opened with a typical staple denier of between 15 to 65
·       Applications include: nonwovens, composites, textiles, any where that a very clean well opened fibre with uniform staple length is needed.
Composite Grade Fibre
·       96 – 99% clean of core fibre Value: .35 – .55 lb.
·       Dust extracted
·       Available in staples lengths between 1″ to 6″.
·       Fairly well opened with a typical staple denier of between 50 to 125
·       Applications include: a range of composites such as automotive, furniture and construction; nonwovens; insulation.
General Purpose Grade Fibre Value: .20 lb.
·       50 – 75% clean of core fibre
·       Staple lengths vary between 1″ to 6″. Can be modified according to your requirements
·       Applications include: fibre for hydro mulch; cement and plaster filler; insulation; geo-matting.
Core fibre
For animal bedding and garden mulch, under the HempChips(tm) brand, is available in 3.2 cu. ft. (90 L) compressed bags through retail outlets and direct-to-stable in truckload quantities.
[xiv] Based on 20% improvement over Canadian production per Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Factsheet “Growing Industrial Hemp in Ontario”, 08/00
[xv] DOE calculation – See Chariton Valley project reports.
[xvi] California Agricultural Employment Report
[xvii] Estimate only. Actual numbers need to be discovered and confirmed.

HEMP BIOMASS FOR ENERGY with New Farm Bill

HEMP BIOMASS FOR ENERGY
RV3
Tim Castleman
© Fuel and Fiber Company, 2001, 2006


Table of Contents

Table of Contents_____________________________________________________________ 2
Introduction_________________________________________________________________ 3
Ways biomass can be used for energy production____________________________________ 3
Burning:_________________________________________________________________________________ 3
Oils:____________________________________________________________________________________ 3
Conversion of cellulose to alcohol:____________________________________________________________ 4
About Hemp_________________________________________________________________ 5
Hemp seed oil for Bio Diesel____________________________________________________ 5
Production of oil__________________________________________________________________________ 5
Production of Bio-Diesel____________________________________________________________________ 5
Hemp Cellulose for Ethanol_____________________________________________________ 6
Forest Thinning and Slash, Mill Wastes________________________________________________________ 6
Agricultural Waste_________________________________________________________________________ 7
MSW (Municipal Solid Waste)______________________________________________________________ 7
Dedicated Energy Crops_____________________________________________________________________ 8
Barriers__________________________________________________________________________________ 8
Benefits_________________________________________________________________________________ 8
The Fuel and Fiber Company Method_____________________________________________ 9
Hemp Biomass Production Model Using the Fuel and Fiber Company Method_______________________ 10
Economic Impact____________________________________________________________ 11
Employment_____________________________________________________________________________ 11
Construction_____________________________________________________________________________ 11
Related agricultural activities________________________________________________________________ 11
Environmental Impact________________________________________________________ 11
Endnotes & References_______________________________________________________ 12


Hemp as Biomass for Energy

Introduction

Hemp advocates claim industrial hemp would be a good source of biomass to help address our energy needs. Since the oil crisis in the early seventies much work has been accomplished in the area of energy production using biomass. Biomass is any plant or tree matter in large quantity. These decades of research have lead to the discovery of several ways to convert biomass into energy and other useful products.
Questions of biomass suitability as compared to other “green” sources of energy are the subject of numerous studies and are not addressed here. Other questions concerning detailed economic and environmental impact, use of GMO’s, and agronomy are also outside the scope of this analysis.
This paper does attempt to explore the options available, and outlines some of the barriers and opportunities regarding them.

Ways biomass can be used for energy production

Burning:

·      Co-fired with coal to reduce emissions and offset a fraction of coal use
·      Burned to produce electricity
·      Pelletized to heat structures
·      Made or cut into logs for heating
Biomass to be burned is typically valued at $30-50 per ton, which makes whole stalk hemp as biomass to be burned impractical due to the high value of its bast fiber. One exception may be found in consideration of the latest gasification technologies used on local small scale and in remote rural applications.
·      Gasification (Pyrrolysis)
Gasification uses high heat to convert biomass into “SynGas” (synthetic gas) and low grade fuel oil which has an energy content of about 40% that of petroleum diesel. By products are mostly “Char” and ash. This technology is readily available commercially in several forms and could be a viable option according to local environmental and economic conditions. Beginning in 1999, Community Power Corporation[i] joined with the US National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) and Shell Renewables, Ltd. to design and develop a new generation of small modular biopower systems. The first prototype SMB system rated at 15 kWe was deployed in the village of Alaminos in the Philippines in early 2001. The fully automated system can use a variety of biomass fuels to generate electricity, shaft power and heat.

Oils:

·      Vegetable, seed and plant oil used “as-is” in diesel engines
·      Biodiesel – vegetable oil converted by chemical reaction
·      Converted into high-quality non-toxic lubricants
There are a number of plants high in oils, and many processes that produce vegetable oil as a waste product. These include soy, corn, coconut, palm, canola, rapeseed, and a number of other promising species. Any of these oils can be converted to biodiesel as described later, with a feedstock cost of $0 + per gallon.

Conversion of cellulose to alcohol:

·      Hydrolysis (Enzymatic & Acid)
Conversion of cellulose to fermentable glucose holds the greatest promise from both a production and feedstock supply standpoint. DOE (NREL) and a number of Universities and private enterprise have been developing this technology and achieved a number of milestones. Production estimates of 80 to 130 gallons per ton of biomass make this technology very attractive.
·      Anaerobic digester (Methane)
Anaerobic digestion is used to capture methane from any waste material. It is confirmed technology under commercialization utilizing landfill gases, wastewater treatment system gases, agricultural wastes from several other sources, particularly hog and cattle manure. It is well suited for distributed power generation when co-located with electrical generation equipment. For example, Corporation for Future Resources[ii] and Minusa Coffee Company, Ltd., located near Itaipé, Minas Gerais, Brazil, have teamed to construct an anaerobic fermentation digestion facility at Minusa’s coffee operation. The 600 cubic meter digester is designed to continuously produce methane rich gas, to be used for coffee drying and electric power production, as well as nitrogen-rich anaerobic organic fertilizer.

CFR/Minusa Anaerobic digester in Brazil.
The digester is constructed from native granite blocks quarried at the Minusa site.

 

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 4.0

This technology may be attractive in some cases when co-located with a hemp fiber processing facility or in remote locations to provide local power generation.


About Hemp

Industrial hemp can be grown in most climates and on marginal soils. It requires little or no herbicide and no pesticide, and uses less water than cotton. Measurements at Ridgetown College indicate the crop needs 300-400 mm (10-13 in.) of rainfall equivalent. Yields will vary according to local conditions and will range from 1.5 to 6 dry tons of biomass per acre[iii]. California’s rich croplands and growing environment are expected to increase yields by 20% over Canadian results, which will average at least 3.9 bone dry tons per acre.

Hemp seed oil for Bio Diesel

Production of oil

Grown for oilseed, Canadian grower’s yields average 1 tonne/hectare, or about 400 lbs. per acre. Cannabis seed contains about 28% oil (112 lbs.), or about 15 gallons per acre. Production costs using these figures would be about $35 per gallon. Some varieties are reported[iv] to yield as much as 38% oil, and a record 2,000 lbs. per acre was recorded in 1999. At this rate, 760 lbs.of oil per acre would result in about 100 gallons of oil, with production costs totaling about $5.20 gallon. This oil could be used as-is in modified diesel engines, or be converted to biodiesel using a relatively simple, automated process. Several systems are under development worldwide designed to produce biodiesel on a small scale, such as on farms using “homegrown” oil crops.

Production of Bio-Diesel

Basically methyl esters, or biodiesel, as it is commonly called, can be made from any oil or fat, including hemp seed oil. The reaction requires only oil, an alcohol (usually methanol) and a catalyst (usually sodium hydroxide [NaOH, or drain cleaner]). The reaction produces only biodiesel and a smaller amount of glycerol or glycerin.

The costs of materials needed for the reaction are the costs associated with production of hemp seed oil, the cost of methanol and the NaOH. In the instances where waste vegetable oil, or WVO, is used, the cost for oil is of course, free. Typically methanol costs about $2 per gallon and NaOH costs about $5 per 500g or about $0.01 per gram. For a typical 17 gallon batch of biodiesel, you’d start with 14 gallons of hemp seed oil; add to that 15% by volume of alcohol (or 2.1 gallons) and about 500g of NaOH. The process takes about 2 hours to complete and requires about 2000 watts of energy. That works out to about 2kw/hr or about $0.10 of energy (assuming $0.05 per kw/hr). So the total cost per gallon of biodiesel is $? (oil) + 2.1 x $2 (methanol) + $5 (NaOH) + $0.10 (energy) / 14 gallons = $0.66 per gallon, plus the cost of the oil.[v] Other costs may include sales, transportation, maintenance, depreciation, insurance and labor.


Hemp Cellulose for Ethanol

Another approach will involve conversion of cellulose to ethanol, which can be done in several ways including gasification, acid hydrolysis and a technology utilizing engineered enzymes to convert cellulose to glucose, which is then fermented to make alcohol. Still another approach using enzymes will convert cellulose directly to alcohol, which leads to substantial process cost savings.
Current costs associated with these conversion processes are about $1.37[vi] per gallon of fuel produced, plus the cost of the feedstock. Of this $1.37, enzyme costs are about $0.50 per gallon; current research efforts are directed toward reduction of this amount to $0.05 per gallon. There is a Federal tax credit of $0.54 per gallon and a number of other various incentives available. Conversion rates range from a low of 25-30 gallons per ton of biomass to 100 gallons per ton using the latest technology.
In 1998 the total California gasoline demand was 14 billion gallons. When ethanol is used to replace MTBE as an oxygenate, this will create California demand in excess of 700 million gallons per year. MTBE is to be phased out of use by 2003 according to State law.
In this case we can consider biomass production from a much broader perspective. Sources of feedstock under consideration for these processes are:

We will address these in turn and show why a dedicated energy crop holds important potential for ethanol production in California, why hemp is a good candidate as a dedicated energy crop, and how it may represent the fastest track to meeting 34% of California’s upcoming ethanol market demand of at least 580-750 million gallons per year.[vii]

Forest Thinning and Slash, Mill Wastes

A 1999 California Energy Commission biomass resource assessment estimated 13.8 million bone dry tons (5.5 Mill, 4.5 Slash & 3.8 thinnings) are available in California.
If practiced within State & Federal regulations, use of this source can have significant beneficial effects. Removal of excess biomass from forests reduces the frequency & intensity of fires, helping control the spread of diseases, and contributes to overall forest health. At 59 – 66 gallons per ton, this could supply as much as 900 million gallons per year.
One proposed California project, Collins Pine’s Chester Mill, which will contribute 20 MGY and be co-located with an existing biomass-powered 12 MW electric generator; yet, there is significant resistance to such uses by several prominent environmental groups, and for good reason – this could eventually lead to widespread destruction of forest habitat by overzealous energy companies willing to disregard the environment in the name of national energy security. Barriers also include harvest cost and capabilities as some slash & thinnings are extremely difficult to access, and the high lignin content of these materials.
If 25% of the available material were used, about 200 million gallons per year could be produced.

Agricultural Waste

In California over 500,000 acres of rice are grown each year. Each acre produces 1-2.5 tons of rice straw which have been until now burned. Alternative methods of disposal are needed, and conversion to ethanol has been under development for several years. There are currently two projects underway proposing to use rice straw: one in California (Gridley) and one in Jennings, LA. If the Gridley project is fully implemented, it will add 25 million gallons of production to California’s already-thin 9 million gallons per year. Barriers include collection costs and the high silica content (13%) of rice straw.
Other agricultural wastes include orchard trimmings, walnut and almond shells, and food processing wastes, for a total of about 700 MGY potential if ALL agricultural wastes were used. This is, of course, impractical, as some must be returned to the soil somehow, plus collection and transport costs will have an effect on viability of a particular waste product. Agricultural waste has the potential to satisfy a significant share of demand, with many factors to be considered when proposing a bio-refinery based on any feedstock, which are determined by full life-cycle analysis.
If 25% of the available material were used, about 175 million gallons per year could be produced.

MSW (Municipal Solid Waste)

Though about 60% of the waste stream is cellulosic material such as yard trimmings, urban waste and paper, this source is not considered a viable option for a number of reasons; these include existing industries that recycle materials and the landfill’s use of green waste as “Alternative Daily Cover” (ADC). Co-location of ethanol production is possible, but only up to about 10 MGY of production. When capital investment is considered, it is generally considered most economical to build larger capacity facilities.
The future of MSW being used for ethanol conversion does not look good. At best, 100 MGY of capacity may eventually come online, but it will be an uphill struggle to compete with higher value uses already in place.



Dedicated Energy Crops

There are 28 million acres of agricultural land in California, of which 10 million acres are established cropland. If 10% of this cropland (1 million acres) were dedicated to production of hemp as an energy and fiber crop, we could produce 150-500 million gallons of ethanol per year.
Greater estimates would result from expanding the analysis to include use of agricultural lands not currently applied to crop production as well as additional land not currently devoted to agriculture. A California Department of Food and Agriculture estimate suggests that each 1 million acres of crop production, occupying roughly 1% of the state’s total land area, would supply the ethanol equivalent of about 3% of California’s current gasoline demand.[viii]

Barriers

A barrier to the development of a cellulose-to-ethanol industry is availability, consistency and make-up, and location of feedstock. Dedicated crops, such as switchgrass[ix], resolve these problems. Cannabis hemp will enhance business opportunities because we can “tailor” the cannabis plant fractions to satisfy multiple end uses such as high value composites, fine paper, nitrogen rich fertilizer, CO2 , medicines, plastics, fabrics and polymers – just a portion of the many possible end uses.

Benefits

Benefits of a dedicated energy crop include consistency of feedstock supply, enhanced co-product opportunities, and increased carbon sequestration. It is commonly held that agricultural industries must focus on multiple value-added products from the various fractions of plants. This value-adding enhances rural development by providing jobs and facilities for value-adding operations. Hemp[x] lends itself to this in a unique way due to the high value of its bast fiber. Market prices for well-cleaned, composite-grade natural fiber are about 55¢ per pound ($1,100 ton); lower value uses, such as in some paper-making, bring $400-$700 per ton, while other value-adding options, such as pulping for fine papers[xi], could increase the value of the fiber to $2,500 per ton.

The Fuel and Fiber Company Method

The Fuel and Fiber Company Method[xii] employs a mechanical separation step to extract the high-value bast fiber[xiii] as a first step in processing. The remaining core material is to undergo conversion to alcohol and other co-products. There is no waste stream and the system will provide a net carbon reduction due to increased biomass production. Conversion efficiency of hemp core is relative to the lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose content and method used. The following table lists some materials often cited as potential sources of biomass and their chemical make-up. A challenge is conversion of hemicellulose to glucose; yet this challenge has been met recently by Genencor, Arkenol, Iogen, and others. These technologies provide conversion of hemicellulose and cellulose fractions to glucose using cellulase enzymes or acid.
Hemp
Cellulose
Hemicellulose
Lignin
Bast
64.8 %
7.7%
4.3 %
Core
34.5 %
17.8%
20.8 %
Soft Pine
44%
26%
27.8%
Spruce
42%
27%
28.6%
Wheat Straw
34%
27.6%
18%
Rice Straw
32.1%
24.0%
12.5%
Corn Stover
28%
28%
11%
Switchgrass
32.5%
26.4%
17.8%
Chemical composition of Industrial Hemp as compared to other plant matter
Lignin has long been viewed as a problem in the processing of fiber, and detailed studies have revealed numerous methods of removal and degradation; commonly it is burned for process heat and power generation. Advances in gasification and turbine technologies enable on-site power and heat generation, and should be seriously considered in any full-scale proposal. Additionally, by full chemical assay and careful market evaluation numerous co-product and value-adding opportunities exist. Such assay should include a NIRS (Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy) analysis, with as many varieties and conditions of material as can be gathered.
Reductions in lignin achieved by cultivation and harvest techniques, germplasm development and custom enzyme development will optimize processing output and efficiency. Incremental advances in system efficiencies related to these production improvements create a significant financial incentive for investors.
The Fuel and Fiber Company Renewable Resource System will process 300,000 to 600,000 tons of biomass per year, per facility; 25% to 35% of this will be high-value grades of core-free bast fiber. The remaining 65% to 75% of biomass will be used for the conversion process. Each facility will process input from 60,000 to 170,000 acres. Outputs are: Ethanol: 10-25 MGY (Million Gallons per Year), Fiber: 67,000 to 167,000 tons per year, and other co-products; fertilizer, animal feed, etc. to be determined. Hemp production will average 3.9 tons per acre with average costs of $520 per acre.

 

Hemp Biomass Production Model Using the Fuel and Fiber Company Method[xiv]

Min
Max
Average
Improve 20%
Totals
Sell 1
Sell 2
Total 1
Total 2
Tons per Acre
1.5
5
3.25
0.65
3.9
Lbs. Bast
(Separated 90-94%)
750
2500
1625
325
1950
0.35
0.55
$682.50
$1,072.50
Lbs. Hurd
2250
7500
4875
975
5850
Gallons Per Ton
20
80
50
$2.00
$3.00
Gallons Per Acre
146
292.5
438.8
Ethanol costs
Per Gallon
0.92
1.37
1.145
167.46
167.46
Ethanol profit
$125.04
$271.29
Gross
$807.54
$1,343.79
Production Costs
Per Acre
424
617
520.5
$520.50
$520.50
Separation costs
Per Ton
41.54
75.68
58.61
$228.58
$228.58
Costs
$749.08
$749.08
Profit
$58.46
$594.71
Administrative & License %
2
$16.15
$26.88
NET
$42.31
$567.84
Capacity
Acres
Tons Fiber
10 MGY Facility
68,376
66,667
Annual
$2,893,256
$38,826,590
25 MGY Facility
170,940
166,667
Profits
$7,233,141
$97,066,474
Total Admin & License
$1,104,333
$4,594,167
Capital costs not included. Estimated capital costs are $135 to $150 million per facility, plus crop payments. To add a pulping operation will require an additional $100 million and adds $117 per ton of fiber processed for pulp, which has a market value of up to $2,500 per ton. The most conservative estimates possible were used for this study. A full-scale feasibility study is needed to validate assumptions and projections. An additional $35 per ton environmental impact benefit should also be factored into future projections[xv].


Economic Impact

Employment

Employment for hemp production, calculated at one worker per 40 acres farmed[xvi], results in a total of 1,700 to 4,275 new jobs, if 10% of California’s cropland is put into production of cannabis hemp. These jobs are created across all traditional agricultural employment sectors, upon full development of the system.
The processing plants will also create new jobs in these areas[xvii]:
·      Administrative & Sales – 15 to 25 per facility
·      Research & Development – 25 to 50 statewide
·      Engineering & Technical – 75 to 100 statewide
·      Construction & Maintenance – 150 to 300 statewide
·      Transportation & Material Handling – 10 to 20 per facility
·      General Labor – 25 to 50 per facility

Construction

Each facility will incur $100-300 million in construction costs. Much of the equipment and labor will be procured locally, creating new jobs and opportunities for entrepreneurs to provide equipment and services to this new industry.

Related agricultural activities

At an average cost of $520 per acre, returns to farmers will range from $50-$500 profit per acre. Used in rotation with other crops, hemp can help reduce herbicide use resulting in savings to the farmer on production of crops other than hemp.

Environmental Impact

There are a great number of environmental impacts to be considered, including;
·      Water use. Agricultural operations & processing will consume hundreds of millions of gallons.
·      Large mono-crop systems have been problematic. Though hemp lends itself well to mono-cropping, effective & feasible rotation schemes must be devised.
·      Genetically Modified Organisms – Are key to efficient conversions but may pose a great threat to life. This is an issue that must be handled with complete transparency & integrity.
·      Waste streams generated – Though expected to be low, a detailed accounting must be made and addressed.
·      Creation of “Carbon Sink” to absorb carbon
·      Improved land and water management
·      In-State fuel production – reducing transport costs and associated effects
·      Reduction in emissions (Continued use of RFG)
·      $35 per acre total environmental benefit



[i] Community Power Corporation, 8420 S. Continental Divide Road, Littleton, CO 80127
[ii] Corporation For Future Resources, !909 Chowkeebin Court, Tallahassee, Florida 32301
[iii] Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs FactSheet “Growing Industrial Hemp in Ontario” 08/00
[iv] A Brief Analysis of the Characteristics of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Grown in Northern Ontario in 1998. May 19, 1999 Herb A. Hinz, Undergraduate Thesis, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario
[v] IAN S. WATSON, AIA BioDiesel Expert
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
[vi] CIFAR Conference XIV, “Cracking the Nut: Bioprocessing Lignocellulose to Renewable Products and Energy”, June 4, 2001
[vii] California Energy Commission report “COSTS AND BENEFITS OF A BIOMASS-TO-ETHANOL PRODUCTION INDUSTRY IN CALIFORNIA”, March, 2001
[viii] California Energy Commission report “EVALUATION OF BIOMASS-TO-ETHANOL FUEL POTENTIAL IN CALIFORNIA”, December, 1999 pg iv 4-5
[ix] Switchgrass is the leading candidate under consideration by DOE. Numerous studies are available upon request.
[x] Cannabis Sativa, commonly know as “hemp” is included in a list of potential field crops considered as Candidate Energy Crops in the December 1999 California Energy Commission report “EVALUATION OF BIOMASS-TO-ETHANOL FUEL POTENTIAL IN CALIFORNIA” pg. iv-3
[xi] Hemp Pulp and Paper Production Gertjan van Roekel jr.
ATO-DLO Agrotechnology, P.O.box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Van Roekel, G J, 1994. Hemp pulp and paper production. Journal of the International Hemp Association 1: 12-14.
[xii] Fuel and Fiber Company was formed to promote a renewable resource system using fibrous crops such as hemp and kenaf to produce high-value natural fiber, ethanol and other co-products. www.FuelandFiber.com
[xiii] All of the hemp fibre produced and sold by Hempline (www.hempline.com) is made from hemp grown without pesticides and processed without chemicals. The fibre is a uniform natural golden colour typical of field retted stalks. The fibre has a moisture regain of 12% and excellent fibre tenacity. The fibre is pressed into high compression bales to minimize transportation costs.
The fibre is available in 40ft. and 20 ft. containers, truckloads or by the bale and shipped internationally. Samples of the fibre are available for trials upon request. The pricing varies based on the fibre grade, and is comparable or more cost effective than many natural and synthetic fibres.
Hempline primary hemp fibre comes in the following grades:
Ultra clean Grade Fibre
·       99.9% clean of core fibre Value: .55 + lb.
·       Dust extracted
·       Available in staples lengths between 1/2″ to 6″ and sliver.
·       Well opened with a typical staple denier of between 15 to 65
·       Applications include: nonwovens, composites, textiles, any where that a very clean well opened fibre with uniform staple length is needed.
Composite Grade Fibre
·       96 – 99% clean of core fibre Value: .35 – .55 lb.
·       Dust extracted
·       Available in staples lengths between 1″ to 6″.
·       Fairly well opened with a typical staple denier of between 50 to 125
·       Applications include: a range of composites such as automotive, furniture and construction; nonwovens; insulation.
General Purpose Grade Fibre Value: .20 lb.
·       50 – 75% clean of core fibre
·       Staple lengths vary between 1″ to 6″. Can be modified according to your requirements
·       Applications include: fibre for hydro mulch; cement and plaster filler; insulation; geo-matting.
Core fibre
For animal bedding and garden mulch, under the HempChips(tm) brand, is available in 3.2 cu. ft. (90 L) compressed bags through retail outlets and direct-to-stable in truckload quantities.
[xiv] Based on 20% improvement over Canadian production per Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Factsheet “Growing Industrial Hemp in Ontario”, 08/00
[xv] DOE calculation – See Chariton Valley project reports.
[xvi] California Agricultural Employment Report
[xvii] Estimate only. Actual numbers need to be discovered and confirmed.

Pemex Oil Output Declines at Fastest Rate Since World War II

Pemex Oil Output Declines at Fastest Rate Since World War II Jan. 20 (Bloomberg) — Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexico’s state oil company, will probably report its fastest drop in production
since 1942, eroding revenue as plunging crude prices limit the amount of cash available to drill for new reserves.

Pemex last year likely extracted 2.8 million barrels a day, down about 9 percent from the 3.08 million a day pumped in 2007, representing a total of $20 billion in lost sales, according to data compiled by the government and Bloomberg. The Mexico City-based company, which had revenue of $104 billion in 2007, plans to report annual production figures tomorrow.

The fall in oil prices and lower production is going to make expensive exploration projects less attractive now.”  Pemex’s “biggest problems have yet to come,” said Alejandro Schtulmann, head of research at Empra, a political-risk consulting firm in Mexico City, in an interview. “The fall in oil prices and lower production is going to make expensive exploration projects less attractive now.”

Sorry for the crude translation:

Salida de Pemex disminución en ritmo más rápido desde la Segunda Guerra MundialPor Andrés R. Martínez – 20 de enero de 2009 01:00 EST
20 de enero (Bloomberg) – Petróleos Mexicanos, la compañía petrolera estatal de México, probablemente reporte su mayor caída en la producción desde 1942, erosionando los ingresos de caída de los precios del crudo limitan la cantidad de efectivo disponible para perforar en busca de nuevas reservas.
Pemex el año pasado probablemente extraído 2,8 millones de barriles al día, hasta un 9 por ciento de los 3,08 millones al día bombea en 2007, lo que representa un total de $ 20 mil millones en ventas perdidas, según datos compilados por el gobierno y Bloomberg. La Ciudad de México basado en la empresa, cuyos ingresos fueron de $ 104 millones en 2007, los planes de la información de cifras de producción anual de mañana.
Caída de la producción está llevando a Pemex en exploración en aguas profundas como estatales Petróleo Brasileiro SA pares en Río de Janeiro y Ecopetrol SA en Bogotá invertir miles de millones para impulsar la producción. Los costos están aumentando en Cantarell, el mayor campo de Pemex, después de la disminución de la presión redujeron la producción en los últimos cinco años. Del petróleo cayeron 77 por ciento desde su récord de julio a 34,08 dólares el barril en Nueva York.
Pemex “mayores problemas aún no han llegado”, dijo Alejandro Schtulmann, jefe de investigación de Empra, una firma consultora de riesgo político en la ciudad de México, en una entrevista. “La caída de los precios del petróleo y la menor producción se va a hacer que los proyectos de exploración cara menos atractiva ahora.”
México cuenta con Pemex el 40 por ciento de su presupuesto. Caída de las ventas puede cortar en la financiación de un 570 mil millones de pesos (US $ 41 millones de dólares) al año del plan de infraestructuras del presidente Felipe Calderón confía en mantener al país fuera de la recesión este año, Schtulmann dijo.
Deslizamiento de salida
Deslizamiento de salida de Pemex riesgos de corte de suministro a los EE.UU., que obtiene más petróleo de México que todos los países excepto Canadá y Arabia Saudita. La menor producción también se presenta como presidente venezolano Hugo Chávez, que ha amenazado con poner fin a los envíos de petróleo a los EE.UU. y se opone a la influencia de EE.UU. en América Latina, celebra un referéndum que pondría fin a los límites del mandato de su presidencia.
Crudo tocó un récord de 147,27 dólares el barril el 11 de julio.
Para compensar la disminución en los campos de envejecimiento, Pemex se centra en aprovechar el petróleo en los mares más allá de 500 metros (1.640 pies), donde el gobierno estima que tiene 30 millones de barriles de petróleo crudo equivalente. Eso sería suficiente para abastecer a los EE.UU. durante cuatro años, de acuerdo con BP Plc.
Descubrimientos en aguas profundas o en tierra firme se encuentra en el campo Chicontepec, puede ayudar a contrarrestar una caída en el campo Cantarell, la tercera mayor del mundo. Pemex está apostando a que puede producir unos 500.000 barriles diarios de Chicontepec, una serie de pequeños depósitos conectados repartidos en estados de Veracruz y Puebla, en el año 2021. El primer pozo en aguas profundas se debe a que entren en funcionamiento en 2015.
La disminución de Cantarell
Para entonces, Cantarell se producen menos de 500.000 barriles diarios de petróleo, director ejecutivo de Jesús Reyes Heroles, dijo el año pasado. Producción en el campo, la caída de más del doble de rápido que las estimaciones del gobierno, cayó a 862.060 barriles diarios en noviembre del año anterior, según datos de la Secretaría de Energía mexicana.
Cantarell, alcanzado en 1976, fue el mayor hallazgo de petróleo en el continente americano hasta el año pasado, cuando Petroleo Brasileiro, conocido como Petrobras, descubrió el yacimiento de Tupi. Pemex estima que Cantarell con 17 mil millones de barriles de petróleo crudo equivalente de reservas cuando se descubrió, en comparación con 8000 millones de barriles de Tupi. Cantarell representa alrededor de un tercio de la producción de Pemex en la actualidad, por debajo del 65 por ciento en su punto máximo en diciembre de 2003.
Petrobras puede gastar $ 112 mil millones hasta 2013 para explorar el llamado pre-sal de los campos que se encuentran costa afuera de Brasil y que incluye Tupi. Ecopetrol de Colombia tiene la intención de aumentar el gasto en un 35 por ciento, a 6,22 mil millones dólares este año para alcanzar un objetivo de casi duplicar la producción de 1 millón de barriles al día.
“Lazy”
Pemex se convirtió en “perezoso” a partir del descubrimiento de Cantarell, basándose en el campo en lugar de centrarse en la exploración durante los próximos 30 años, Carlos Morales, la exploración de la compañía y director de producción, dijo en una entrevista en noviembre.
El Ministerio de Hacienda de México cobertura contra la caída de Pemex en la producción y la caída de los precios mediante la compra de una opción para vender todo su petróleo para la exportación a 70 dólares el barril este año, asegurando financiamiento a corto plazo para el presupuesto del gobierno.
El país no ha permitido a las empresas extranjeras para explorar o producir petróleo en el país desde que Pemex se formó a partir de los bienes expropiados de Chevron Corp. y Exxon Mobil Corp. en 1938. Que ahora puede cambiar después el Congreso aprobó cambios legislativos para la industria en octubre para ayudar a impulsar la producción.
Para contactar con el reportero en esta historia: Andrés R. Martínez en Ciudad de México en amartinez28@bloomberg.net.
Para contactar con el editor responsable de esta historia: Dale Crofts en dcrofts@bloomberg.net

Propuesta Para La Legalización de Cáñamo Industrial en México

¿Qué es el cáñamo?
El cáñamo es una de las primeras plantas domesticadas conocidas por la humanidad. El cáñamo se utiliza sobre todo como un nombre de bajo contenido de tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) de las cepas de la planta Cannabis sativa, de fibra y / o variedades de semillas oleaginosas. Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa es la variedad que se cultiva para uso industrial, mientras que C. sativa subsp., indica, normalmente conocida como marihuana, por lo general tiene mala calidad de la fibra y se utiliza principalmente para la producción de drogas recreacionales y medicinales.
La principal diferencia entre los dos tipos de plantas es el aspecto y la cantidad de THC secreta en una mezcla resinosa por los pelos epidérmicos llamados tricomas glandulares, aunque también se puede distinguir genéticamente. Variedades de semillas oleaginosas y de fibra de cannabis aprobado para producción a escala industrial sólo producen pequeñas cantidades de esta droga psicoactiva, no es suficiente para los efectos físicos o psicológicos. Por lo general, el cáñamo contiene menos de 0.3% de THC, mientras que los cultivares de cannabis cultivadas de marihuana puede contener entre un 2% a más del 20%.
Hoy en día el cáñamo en el Mundo
Sólo recientemente, en el 1900 fue declarada ilegal en todo el mundo siguiendo el ejemplo de los Estados Unidos. Es irónico teniendo en cuenta que Estados Unidos los presidentes George Washington y Thomas Jefferson, creció el cáñamo, productos usados ​​hechos de cáñamo, e incluso escribió la Constitución de Estados Unidos sobre el cáñamo y bajo la presión de John D. Rockefeller y su imperio del petróleo hizo que los EE.UU. decidan cáñamo peligroso para Estados Unidos y el mundo.
A pesar de ser declarada ilegal en 1937 bajo la Ley del Impuesto sobre la marihuana, el gobierno de EE.UU. hizo una campaña a nivel nacional para cultivar cáñamo para su uso en la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Esa campaña fue llamado Cáñamo para la victoria. Mientras que más de cáñamo se exporta a los Estados Unidos que cualquier otro país, el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos no siempre distingue entre la marihuana y el cannabis no psicoactivo utilizado con fines industriales y comerciales.
Las leyes en los EE.UU. están a punto de cambiar. Desde 19XX, 15 estados de EE.UU. han legalizado la marihuana medicinal y el apoyo popular está creciendo todos los días.Más importante aún, la legislación ha sido presentado al Congreso para su debate por la corriente principal candidato presidentail republicano, Ron Paul. Este proyecto de ley que se conoce como HR 1831, la ley sobre la agricultura del cáñamo de 2011.
En los tiempos modernos, el cáñamo se utiliza para fines industriales, como papel, textiles, plásticos biodegradables, construcción, alimentos saludables, los biocombustibles, la biomasa, que ofrece una alternativa fácil a todos los envrionmentally biproducts petróleo.Hoy en día el líder mundial productor de cáñamo es China, con menor producción en Canadá, Inglaterra, Alemania y naciones de Europa Oriental, Australia, Chile y Corea del Norte.
Reino Unido basado en Lotus comenzó a trabajar un coche a base de cáñamo y lo lanzó a la producción y en Canadá, un automóvil llamado Kestrel se produce la liberación de Industrias motivo en el año 2012 que será un coche eléctrico compuesto de cáñamo y un peso de 2500 libras.
Mercedes Benz de Alemania ha comenzado recientemente a los organismos de fabricación de automóviles y paneles hechos de cáñamo.
¿Por qué cáñamo?
El cáñamo es una de las biomasas de más rápido crecimiento conocida, que produce hasta 25 toneladas de materia seca por hectárea por año. Un rendimiento promedio normal en gran escala de la agricultura moderna es de 2,5-3,5 t / ac (rendimientos de aire seco del tallo de los tallos secos, enriado por acre a humedad del 12%). Aproximadamente, una tonelada de fibra de líber y 2.3 toneladas de material del núcleo puede ser peladas de toneladas 3-4 de buena calidad, paja seca enriado.
Es muy respetuosos del medio ambiente, ya que requiere pocos pesticidas y herbicidas que no. Los resultados indican que un alto rendimiento de cáñamo pueden requerir altos niveles de nutrientes totales (campo más nutrientes de los fertilizantes), similar a una cosecha de trigo de alto rendimiento.
Combustible – A diferencia del petróleo, carbón, gas natural o combustibles nucleares, el cáñamo es un recurso biodegradable y renovable, que nos podría abastecerse de materias primas durante miles de años, sin cambiar nuestro clima y sin producir residuos que sigue siendo radiactivo durante millones de años.
Plásticos – Miles de productos a base de derivados del petróleo de los plásticos pueden ser producidos a partir de compuestos a base de cáñamo para crear sustitutos fuerte, plástico duradero y respetuoso del medio ambiente.
Textiles – Muchos de los productos textiles (camisas, chaquetas, pantalones, mochilas, etc) a base de cáñamo 100% ya están disponibles. Es tolerante a las heladas, requiere sólo cantidades moderadas de agua, y podría crecer en los 32 estados de México. Sobre una base anual, una hectárea de cáñamo produce más fibra de 2 a 3 hectáreas de algodón, y el papel tanto como 2 a 4 hectáreas de árboles. La fibra de cáñamo es más fuerte y más suave que el algodón, dura dos veces más como el algodón, y no el moho. El cáñamo no requiere pesticidas, herbicidas no, y sólo cantidades moderadas de fertilizante. El uso del cáñamo en lugar de los árboles reducen la demanda de la deforestación masiva y la lucha contra los daños ambientales causados ​​por la industria petrolera.
¿Por qué la legalización del cáñamo en México?
Cáñamo proporcionar a México una industria completamente nueva que podría generar ingresos para las familias rurales y las pequeñas empresas en los 32 estados de la República. El cáñamo sería una enorme fuente de energía limpia y la industria limpia y realmente revertir el daño ambiental causado por la industria del petróleo que contamina el aire, tierra y mar a través de todas las fases de uso. Otras razones para legalizar el cáñamo sería que sería:

  • Crear un uso productivo de las tierras públicas y privadas.
  • Ser utilizados para producir diesel no tóxicos y combustible de etanol y el aceite lubricante que permite casi todos los automóviles, tren, avión, o la quema de combustibles dispositivo mecánico puede funcionar con combustible de cáñamo.
  • Crecer en todos los estados de Baja California al Estado de México a Chihuahua y Chiapas.
  • Rendimiento de tres hasta seis toneladas por hectárea en los terrenos que se cultivan maíz, trigo o avena.
  • Se siembra después de otros cultivos se encuentran en lo que tiene una corta temporada de cultivo, dejando el suelo en perfectas condiciones para la cosecha del próximo año. El choque densa de hojas, de ocho a doce pies de altura, ahoga las malas hierbas.


Beneficios para los municipales, estatales y federales
Una pequeña cuota de licencias para la producción y distribución de este nuevo cultivo y fuente de energía generaría ingresos para los gobiernos municipales y estatales la lucha contra el déficit presupuestario.
Como los biocombustibles de cultivos nacionales alternativos, el cáñamo puede proporcionar a México una alternativa a la disminución de la producción de petróleo por PEMEX. (No debería ser un secreto que la producción de petróleo en México alcanzó su punto máximo alrededor del año 2000 tal como lo hizo en los EE.UU. en la década de 1970. No es por falta de inversión y la tecnología, ni la educación. La alternativa es seguir aumentando el costo de la gasolina PEMEX hasta que la economía screaches a su fin y la revuelta de la gente.)
La industria del cáñamo nuevo, desde la agricultura a los plásticos para la energía, crearía cientos de miles de empleos sostenibles en todo el país durante muchos años por venir.Esto reduciría el flujo de campesinos desempleados en los Estados Unidos y las ciudades superpobladas en todo México, con lo que la subvaloración de la fuente de trabajo para la droga, la prostitución y la trata de personas que ha plagado a México en los últimos 20 años.
Beneficios para los agricultores y las pequeñas empresas
Licencias de confinar a los ciudadanos y las pequeñas empresas charter que promover el empleo sostenible para los agricultores y millones de empresarios en todo el país y facilitar la independencia financiera para empresarios creativos de energía limpia.
Los agricultores podrían destilar etanol a partir de cáñamo en sus propias tierras, lo que reduce el costo de cultivar y transportar sus cosechas. Los agricultores también podrían utilizar el sobrante de sus cosechas de biomasa como fuente de materia prima para la producción de electricidad local, la reducción de costos de servicios públicos. Incluso algunos agricultores podrían vender su exceso de energía y capacidad de combustible a los agricultores neigboring otros, la creación de economías más sostenibles a nivel local.
Cáñamo para la Victoria en México
Al legalizar el cultivo de cáñamo ahora, México tiene la oportunidad de aprovechar el mercado de exportación y hacerse un hueco en el Norte, Centro y Sur América. La omisión de revocar la prohibición del cáñamo se traducirá en la disminución continua de la economía estadounidense y una gran oportunidad económica y ambiental será perdido.
Si un combustible fósil tan peligroso como el petróleo puede ser usado, entonces sin duda la utilización del cáñamo industrial no se puede negar. No hay lógica que puede bloquear la legislación para legalizar una planta, sólo la política torcida.
Como ningún otro momento de la historia, el México moderno sufre de una falta de producción nacional de energía limpia, la deuda sin precedentes personales y gubernamentales, y una comunidad agrícola indigentes.
¿Qué puede hacer para apoyar el movimiento para legalizar el cáñamo?
Los mexicanos preocupados por el empleo, emmigration, el tráfico de drogas, la energía, la contaminación, la guerra y la prosperidad económica, debemos actuar ahora. Las redes sociales como Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn y se puede utilizar para obtener el apoyo de valientes políticos locales que buscan un verdadero cambio en tiempos económicos difíciles.
Twitter hashtags: #hemp4victory #hemp4fuel

Proposal for the Legalization of Hemp in Mexico


What is hemp?
Hemp is one of the earliest domesticated plants known to humankind.  Hemp is mostly used as a name for low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) strains of the plant Cannabis sativa, of fiber and/or oilseed varieties.   Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa is the variety grown for industrial use, while C. sativa subsp., indica, typically known as marijuana, generally has poor fiber quality and is primarily used for production of recreational and medicinal drugs.  
The major difference between the two types of plants is the appearance and the amount of THC secreted in a resinous mixture by epidermal hairs called glandular trichomes, although they can also be distinguished genetically.  Oilseed and fiber varieties of Cannabis approved for industrial hemp production produce only minute amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any physical or psychological effects. Typically, hemp contains below 0.3% THC, while cultivars of Cannabis grown for marijuana can contain anywhere from 2% to over 20%.

Hemp Today Around the World
Only recently, in the early 1900’s was it made illegal around the world following the lead of the United States.  It is ironic considering that United States Presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew hemp, used products made from hemp, and even wrote the United States Consitution on hemp and under pressure from John D. Rockefeller and his petroleum empire did the US decide that hemp was dangerous for America and the world. 
Despite it being made illegal in 1937 under the Marijuana Tax Act, the US government ran a nationwide campaign to grow hemp for use in World War II.  That campaign was called Hemp For Victory.  While more hemp is exported to the United States than to any other country, the United States Government does not consistently distinguish between marijuana and the non-psychoactive Cannabis used for industrial and commercial purposes. 
The laws in the US are on the verge of changing.  Since 19XX, 15 US states have legalized medicinal marijuana and popular support is growing everyday.  More importantly, legislation has been submitted to Congress for debate by the current leading Republican presidentail candidate, Ron Paul.  This proposed legislation is known as H.R. 1831, the Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2011.
In modern times, hemp is being used for industrial purposes including paper, textiles, biodegradable plastics, construction, health food, biofuels, biomass, offering an envrionmentally friendly alternative to all petroleum biproducts.  Today the world leading producer of hemp is China with smaller production in Canada, England, Germany, and Eastern European nations, Australia, Chile and North Korea.  
UK-based Lotus began work a hemp-based car and released it into production and in Canada , an automobile called the Kestrel being produced for release by Motive Industries in 2012 which will be an electric car made of hemp composite and weighing only 2500 pounds .
Mercedes Benz of Germany has recently begun manufacturing automobile bodies and dashboards made from hemp.
Why Hemp?
Hemp is one of the faster growing biomasses known, producing up to 25 tonnes of dry matter per hectare per year. A normal average yield in large scale modern agriculture is about 2.5–3.5 t/ac (air dry stem yields of dry, retted stalks per acre at 12% moisture).  Approximately, one tonne of bast fiber and 2–3 tonnes of core material can be decorticated from 3–4 tonnes of good quality, dry retted straw.
It is very environmentally friendly as it requires few pesticides and no herbicides.  Results indicate that high yield of hemp may require high total nutrient levels (field plus fertilizer nutrients) similar to a high yielding wheat crop.

Fuel – Unlike oil, coal, natural gas or nuclear fuels, hemp is a biodegradable, renewable resource that could supply us with raw materials for thousands of years, without changing our climate and without producing waste that remains radioactive for millions of years. 

Plastics – Thousands of products made from petroleum-based plastics can be produced from hemp-based composites to create strong, durable and environmentally-friendly plastic substitutes.

Textiles – Many textile products (shirts, jackets, pants, backpacks, etc.) made from 100% hemp are now available.  It is frost tolerant, requires only moderate amounts of water, and could grow in all 32 states on Mexico.  On an annual basis, 1 acre of hemp will produce as much fiber as 2 to 3 acres of cotton, and as much paper as 2 to 4 acres of trees.  Hemp fiber is stronger and softer than cotton, lasts twice as long as cotton, and will not mildew.  Hemp requires no pesticides, no herbicides, and only moderate amounts of fertilizer. Using hemp instead of trees will reduce the demand for massive deforestation and counter the environmental damage caused by the petroleum industry.

Why legalize hemp in Mexico?
Hemp would provide Mexico with a completely new industry which could generate incomes for rural families and small businesses in all 32 states of the Republic. Hemp would be an enormous source of clean energy and clean industry and would actually reverse the environmental damage caused by the petroleum industry which contaminates the air, land, and sea through all phases of use.  Other reasons to legalize hemp would be that it would:
  • Create productive use of both public and private land.  
  • Be used to produce non-toxic diesel and ethanol fuel and lubricating oil  enabling nearly every automobile, train, plane, or fuel burning mechanical device can run on hemp fuel.
  • Grow in every state from Baja California to Estado de Mexico to Chihuahua and Chiapas.
  • Yield from three to six tons per acre on any land that will grow corn, wheat, or oats.
  • Be planted after other crops are in as it has a short growing season, leaving the soil in perfect condition for next year’s crop.  The dense shock of leaves, eight to twelve feet above the ground, chokes out weeds.


Benefits to Municipal, State, and Federal Governments
A small fee for licensing the production and distribution of this new crop and energy source would create revenues for city and state governments fighting budget deficits.
As a domestically grown alternative biofuel, hemp could provide Mexico with an alternative to decreasing petroleum production by PEMEX.  (It should be no secret that oil production in Mexico peaked around 2000 just as it did in the US in the early 1970’s.  It is not for a lack of investment and technology nor education.  The alternative is to continue increasing the cost of PEMEX gasoline until the economy screaches to a halt and the people revolt.)
The new hemp industry, from farming to plastics to energy, would create hundreds of thousands of sustainable jobs across the country for many years to come.  This would reduce the flow of unemployed farmers to the United States and to the overcrowded cities across Mexico, thereby undercutting the source of labor for the drug, prostitution, and human trafficking that has plagued Mexico for the past 20 years. 

Benefits to Farmers and Small Businesses
Confining licenses to citizens and chartered small businesses would promote sustainable jobs for farmers and millions of entrepreneurs across the country and facilitate financial independence for creative clean energy entrepreneurs.  
Farmers could distill ethanol from hemp on their own lands, reducing the cost of cultivating and transporting their harvest.  Farmers could also use the biomass leftover from their harvest as a source of feedstock for local electricity production, reducing utility costs.  Some farmers could even sell their excess energy and fuel capacity to other neigboring farmers, creating more locally sustainable economies.
Hemp for Victory in Mexico
By legalizing hemp cultivation now, Mexico has the opportunity to tap into the export market and gain a foothold in North, Central, and South America.  Failure to repeal Hemp Prohibition will result in the continued decline of the American economy and a significant economic and environmental opportunity will be lost. 
If a fossil fuel as dangerous as petroleum can be used, then surely utilization of industrial hemp cannot be denied.  There is no logic which can block legislation to legalize a plant, only twisted politics.
Like no other time in history, modern Mexico suffers from a lack of domestic clean energy production, unprecedented personal and governmental debt, and a destitute agricultural community. 

What Can You Do to Support the Movement to Legalize Hemp?
Mexicans concerned about jobs, emmigration, drug trafficking, energy, pollution, war, and economic prosperity, must ACT NOW.  Social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and LinkedIn can be used to garner support for courageous local politicians seeking true change in difficult economic times.  
Twitter hastags: #hemp4victory #hemp4fuel

Why the Legalization of Industrial Hemp is a National Prosperity and Security Issue

Like no other time in history, modern America suffers from a lack of domestic clean energy production, weakened national security, unprecedented personal and governmental debt, and a destitute middle class.

This is why it is imperative that the 112th Congress of the USA vote to approve of H.R.1831, the Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2011, sponsored by Congressman Ron Paul and co-sponsored by 26 other members across the political spectrum.

http://www.opencongress.org/bill/112-h1831/show# – Click on “I Support This Bill” and share this article and call your local representative.

What does hemp have to do with energy security, national security, and national prosperity? I am glad you asked.

Over the last 30 years, the U.S. Federal government in conjunction with the privately held Federal Reserve system have gutted our a middle class with years of economic policies that force unsustainable lifestyles, debt, and dependence. Meanwhile absentminded citizens, addicted to a lifestyle of consumption and convenience are largely unaware that our military and Federal government have justified the defense of finite resources such as natural gas and petroleum at all costs around the globe as explicitly defined in the Carter Doctrine. At the same time the Federal government provides subsidies for the fossil fuel industry giving them an unfair advantage over alternative energy sources.  These policies and addictions have bankrupted our citizens and governments, polluted our planet, driven us to war, and endangered our national security.

Now at the beginning of the 21st century it is unmistakable that as part of the total solution we need access to every available clean energy resource available on god’s green earth and this MUST include HEMP. Legalizing and taxing hemp across the nation would spawn new industries that could be a vital part of the solution to many of our economic problems by creating jobs for citizens across the country and creating new exports to fight the trade deficit.

Hemp is high yield crop, producing more biomass per acre than most other crops and can be used for biofuels, biomass, textiles, paper, plastics, and more. Unlike oil, coal, natural gas or nuclear fuels, hemp is a biodegradable, renewable resource that could supply us with raw materials for thousands of years, without changing our climate and without producing waste that remains radioactive for millions of years.

Reasonable taxation of the production and distribution of this new crop and energy source would create revenues for city and state governments fighting deficits. Confining licenses to citizens and chartered small businesses would promote sustainable jobs for the middle class across the country and facilitate financial independence for creative clean energy entrepreneurs.

As a domestically grown alternative biofuel, hemp could become an effective peace pipe for national security by easing geopolitical tensions between the US and other nations (such as China) competing for energy in increasingly dangerous locations.

Opponents of the bill such as big pharma, big oil, the cotton and the natural gas lobbies will argue that their economic prosperity will decline with the legalization of industrial hemp farming in the US market. For them there are no easy answers. For the middle class, however, this is an opportunity of a lifetime.
Americans concerned about energy, pollution, war, and economic prosperity, must ACT NOW. Show your support for HR1831 – Legalization of Industrial Hemp Farming

http://www.opencongress.org/bill/112-h1831/show# – Click on “I Support This Bill” and share this article and call your local representative. On Twitter, look for #hempforvictory

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Why the Legalization of Industrial Hemp is a National Prosperity and Security Issue

Like no other time in history, modern America suffers from a lack of domestic clean energy production, weakened national security, unprecedented personal and governmental debt, and a destitute middle class.

This is why it is imperative that the 112th Congress of the USA vote to approve of H.R.1831, the Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2011, sponsored by Congressman Ron Paul and co-sponsored by 26 other members across the political spectrum.

http://www.opencongress.org/bill/112-h1831/show# – Click on “I Support This Bill” and share this article and call your local representative.

What does hemp have to do with energy security, national security, and national prosperity? I am glad you asked.

Over the last 30 years, the U.S. Federal government in conjunction with the privately held Federal Reserve system have gutted our a middle class with years of economic policies that force unsustainable lifestyles, debt, and dependence. Meanwhile absentminded citizens, addicted to a lifestyle of consumption and convenience are largely unaware that our military and Federal government have justified the defense of finite resources such as natural gas and petroleum at all costs around the globe as explicitly defined in the Carter Doctrine. At the same time the Federal government provides subsidies for the fossil fuel industry giving them an unfair advantage over alternative energy sources.  These policies and addictions have bankrupted our citizens and governments, polluted our planet, driven us to war, and endangered our national security.

Now at the beginning of the 21st century it is unmistakable that as part of the total solution we need access to every available clean energy resource available on god’s green earth and this MUST include HEMP. Legalizing and taxing hemp across the nation would spawn new industries that could be a vital part of the solution to many of our economic problems by creating jobs for citizens across the country and creating new exports to fight the trade deficit.

Hemp is high yield crop, producing more biomass per acre than most other crops and can be used for biofuels, biomass, textiles, paper, plastics, and more. Unlike oil, coal, natural gas or nuclear fuels, hemp is a biodegradable, renewable resource that could supply us with raw materials for thousands of years, without changing our climate and without producing waste that remains radioactive for millions of years.

Reasonable taxation of the production and distribution of this new crop and energy source would create revenues for city and state governments fighting deficits. Confining licenses to citizens and chartered small businesses would promote sustainable jobs for the middle class across the country and facilitate financial independence for creative clean energy entrepreneurs.

As a domestically grown alternative biofuel, hemp could become an effective peace pipe for national security by easing geopolitical tensions between the US and other nations (such as China) competing for energy in increasingly dangerous locations.

Opponents of the bill such as big pharma, big oil, the cotton and the natural gas lobbies will argue that their economic prosperity will decline with the legalization of industrial hemp farming in the US market. For them there are no easy answers. For the middle class, however, this is an opportunity of a lifetime.

Americans concerned about energy, pollution, war, and economic prosperity, must ACT NOW. Show your support for HR1831 – Legalization of Industrial Hemp Farming

http://www.opencongress.org/bill/112-h1831/show# – Click on “I Support This Bill” and share this article and call your local representative. On Twitter, look for #hempforvictory